Happy New Year: It’s not a Trademark for Wine, But it is for Dolls

HappyNewYearLNJ Vineyards LLC applied to register HAPPY NEW YEAR as a trademark for wine. The USPTO Examining Attorney refused registration asserting that HAPPY NEW YEAR did not function as a trademark when used in connection with wine.

The Examining Attorney said:

“HAPPY NEW YEAR, is a common sentiment usually conveyed when wishing someone happiness in the new year…Further, such phrases are commonly associated with wine and wishing someone a happy new year. … Accordingly, the mark functions only as the sentiment it conveys, rather than as a trademark/source identifier for the wine.”

If you heard/saw “HAPPY NEW YEAR” in connection with wine, would you think its a brand or would you think it was the common sentiment wishing you a happy new year? People drink wine on new years eve and commonly wish …

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How Important is the Description of Goods or Services in a Trademark Application?


Raj Abhyanker is the owner of the lawfirm LegalForce RAPC Worldwide and of Tradmarkia.com. Raj and his lawfirm sued LegalZoom, the USPTO, and the State Bars of California, Arizona, and Texas based on what Raj alleged is LegalZoom’s unauthorized practice of law in connection with trademark application filing.

Alleged Unauthorized Practice of Law

Raj alleged that LegalZoom engaged in the unauthorized practice of law in connection with LegalZoom’s trademark application filing service. Raj and his law firm used LegalZoom to apply for two trademarks in connection with two of the Plaintiff’s businesses.

According to the complaint, LegalZoom represents on its website that it does not practice law. However, the complaint alleges that LegalZoom collects a service fee for its “peace of mind” review service. The complaint alleges that during the “class …

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Why You Should Own and Control Your Domain Name

“Do you want to build your online brand on the sand of someone else’s domain registration or on a bedrock of a domain registered in your name?”

FLNBIf you buy a piece of land, a house, or a building, would you allow the title to that property to name your real estate agent or your maintenance contractor? No, you would not. When you are spending hundreds of thousands of dollars or more on something you make sure that you actually own it in your name.

The same should be true when you buy a domain name for your website, regardless of the price. You should own and register it in your name, and not your technology provider’s name or anyone else’s name. When this is not the case, it can …

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Incontestable Status of Mark Found Generic Does Not Prevent Exceptional Case Attorney Fees

REACTIVEGeoDynamics sued DynaEnergetics for trademark  infringement of GeoDynamics’ REACTIVE trademark. GeoDynamics owned U.S. Trademark Registration No. 3,496,381 for the REACTIVE mark. After a bench trial the court found that REACTIVE was generic for the goods of fracturing charges for use in oil and gas wells and ordered the registration cancelled.

The defendant moved for fees and the court agreed that GeoDynamic’s trademark case was exceptional based on the weakness of its case. GeoDynamic asserted that the case was not exceptional because, among other reasons, the REACTIVE mark had achieved incontestability status at the USPTO. The court rejected that view. The incontestability status was not a bar to finding the case was exceptional.

Incontestability is somewhat misleading because “incontestability” is only achieved with respect to some grounds on which the registration …

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Multi-Color Design Trademarks and Trade Dress

SATA_Italco_PaintSATA GmbH sued Discount Auto Body and Paint Supply LLC for infringing its product design trademarks in the alleged sale of paint spray guns. SATA GmbH & Co. KG v. Discount Auto Body and Paint Supply LLC, No. 2-17-cv-03101 (D.N.V. 2017).

This case demonstrates that it is possible not only to obtain trademark protection in a product design comprising a single color applied to an area of the product, but also on any color applied to an area of a product. In other words, the use of any color on an area of a product can itself act as a trademark, indicating a source of goods and/or services.

One of the trademark SATA asserted was U.S. Trademark Registration No. 2,770,801 for a design mark of “a green band of color extended around the circumference …

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How to Find Cases Interpreting the Illinois Trademark Registration and Protection Act

The Illinois Trademark Registration and Protection Act (“Illinois Trademark Act”) provides a system for registering and enforcing trademarks in Illinois.  765 ILCS 1036/1 et seq. However, in many instances there may not be any relevant cases interpreting the provisions of the Illinois Trademark Act. Section 90 of the Act may solve this problem by providing that cases interpreting the federal Lanham Act are persuasive authority for interpreting similar provisions of the Illinois Trademark Act. 765 ILCS 1036/90.

In particular, section 90 states:

…The intent of this Act is to provide a system of State trademark registration and protection substantially consistent with the federal system of trademark registration and protection under the Trademark Act of 1946, as amended. To that end, the construction given the federal Act shall be examined as persuasive …

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Reversing Order of Words of a Mark and Consistent Use of a Mark

CAGE_PHConventus Orthopaedics applied to register two marks CAGE PH and PH CAGE for surgical implants. The Examining attorney refused registration on the basis that each mark was descriptive. The Examining attorney argued that PH was descriptive for proximal humerus (bone). The TTAB reversed finding that there was not enough evidence to show that PH was descriptive.

What’s interesting about this case is that the applicant applied to register CAGE PH (No. 86534128) and its reversed/transposed order PH CAGE (No. 86534174). This is unusual. Normally you want to use a mark consistently in order to properly build trademark rights. Inconsistent use of a mark can negatively impact your trademark rights.

Further, the TTAB has said that reversing or transposing the elements/words of a mark does not avoid a conflict when the overall commercial impression …

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Patent Drafting: Enabling Skilled Person to Make and Use the Invention

USPatent5231253_Fig3Automotive Technologies International (ATI) sued numerous vehicle and parts manufacturers including BMW and Delphi Automotive Systems for infringing US patent 5,231,253 on side impact crash sensors for deploying an air bag. The court of appeals determined that the patent was invalid for failing to enable the claimed invention in Auto. Techs. Int’l, Inc. v. BMW of N. Am., Inc., 501 F.3d 1274 (Fed. Cir. 2007).

The law requires that your patent application describe your invention to such a level of detail so as to enable one who’s skilled in the art to  make and use the invention, without undue experimentation. This is known as the enablement requirement. The relevant statute states that every patent must describe “the manner and process of making and using [the invention], in such full, …

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LEGO Patent Demonstrates Why Your Patent Application Should Describe Alternative Versions of the Invention


To protect an invention broadly, a patent application should describe alternative versions of the invention. When developing an invention it may be that several variations of the invention or a component of the invention are considered before a final version is settled on for production.

You often have a better chance of obtaining broad patent protection if those unused variations of the invention are included in the application along with the final version.

The LEGO Patent and Alternatives

The patent on the LEGO building block toy (U.S. Patent No. 3,005,282) provides a good example. The patent includes not only the iconic block that many recognize, shown at the top of this post. But it also includes six other versions that I have not seen on the market and may …

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Name with Dictionary Definition Involving Illegal Activity: How Will it Play with the Jury

ContrabandYesterday, I wrote about Contraband Sports LLC’s lawsuit for declaratory judgement that its four finger weight lifting glove does not infringe Fit Four LLC’s design patent D652,607. If this case goes to trial, could there be any difficulty arising out of Contraband’s name?

On one hand, a party’s name should have no bearing, merits-wise, on whether or not it infringes a patent. On the other hand, does Contraband’s name have a negative connotation that could impact the jury?

The Oxford English dictionary provides one definition of “contraband” as “goods that have been imported or exported illegally.” Merriam-Webster’s dictionary provides an other definition of the term as “illegal or prohibited traffic in goods.” Dictionary.com provides a definition of the term as “anything prohibited by law from being imported or exported.”

Say …

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